The NBER's Business Cycle Dating Committee maintains a chronology of the U. A recession is a period between a peak and a trough, and an expansion is a period between a trough and a peak.
Similarly, during an expansion, economic activity rises substantially, spreads across the economy, and usually lasts for several years.It examines and compares the behavior of various measures of broad activity: real GDP measured on the product and income sides, economy-wide employment, and real income.The Committee also may consider indicators that do not cover the entire economy, such as real sales and the Federal Reserve's index of industrial production (IP).The Committee's use of these indicators in conjunction with the broad measures recognizes the issue of double-counting of sectors included in both those indicators and the broad measures.If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware.If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices.
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In both recessions and expansions, brief reversals in economic activity may occur-a recession may include a short period of expansion followed by further decline; an expansion may include a short period of contraction followed by further growth.
The Committee applies its judgment based on the above definitions of recessions and expansions and has no fixed rule to determine whether a contraction is only a short interruption of an expansion, or an expansion is only a short interruption of a contraction.
The most recent example of such a judgment that was less than obvious was in 1980-1982, when the Committee determined that the contraction that began in 1981 was not a continuation of the one that began in 1980, but rather a separate full recession.
The Committee does not have a fixed definition of economic activity.